Kyushu Region

The Kyushu Region includes the westernmost areas of Japan, and it consists of eight prefectures: Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Oita, Miyazaki, Kagoshima, and Okinawa.

Prefectures in Kyushu REgion, Japan
Prefectures in the Kyushu Region

Roughly speaking, the Kyushu Region can be divided into two parts: One is the main island of Kyushu, the third largest of Japan’s four biggest islands, and the many small islands immediately surrounding it, most of which are concentrated on its western side; the other is a lengthy southern island chain extending from the southern coastal waters of Kyushu’s main island almost to the waters off of Taiwan. It spans over 1,000 km and is collectively called the Nansei Islands, which actually consists of five different island groups: They are, in the order from the northeast to the southwest, the Osumi Islands, the Tokara Islands, the Amami Islands, the Okinawa Islands, and the Sakishima Islands. Administratively, the former three belong to Kagoshima Prefecture and the latter two belong to Okinawa Prefecture.

A beach of the Amami Island, Japan
A beach of the Amami Islands

Okinawa has a completely different history from the other seven prefectures located on the Kyushu main island. First of all, it was not part of Japan until the late 19th century. The area centered around the present-day Okinawa Islands was once governed by an independent nation called the Ryukyu Kingdom. Established in 1429, the kingdom developed through the intermediate trade connecting Japan, China, and other Asian countries, and a unique culture flourished there. But in 1609, it succumbed to the power of the Satsuma Domain of Japan, which included most of present-day Kagoshima Prefecture, and after the abolishment of the kingdom in 1872, it was eventually incorporated into Japan as Okinawa Prefecture in 1879.

Shuri Castle in Okinawa, Japan
Site of Shuri Castle in Okinawa Prefecture

Today, if you visit the site of Shuri Castle or other historical ruins that dot the Okinawa main island, you might be able to imagine some of the past glories of the Ryukyu Kingdom. In fact, all of these historical sites related to the kingdom were registered as UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2000 under the name “Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu.”

Okinawa’s hardships continued even into the 20th century. The Battle of Okinawa, which was fought between the United States and the Imperial Japanese Army from April to June in 1945, turned out to be one of the biggest and fiercest battles of World War Two. Not only the combatants from both sides but also a considerable number of local Okinawans were caught up in ground battles and lost their lives.

"War-remain" from the Battle of Okinawa
One of the “war-remains” in Iejima Island, Okinawa Prefecture

For a little more than two decades after the war, the Okinawa Islands were occupied by the United States until they were eventually returned to Japanese control in 1972. But even today, a large portion of the land in Okinawa is still used as U.S. military bases, exerting a strong influence on the local industries as well as the lives of local residents.

“Cornerstone of Peace” in Okinawa Senseki Quasi-National Park

In this way, Okinawa went through many difficulties, and this complicated history makes Okinawa different among the prefectures of Kyushu. People in Okinawa have been well aware of this and that is why the Kyushu Region is sometimes referred to as the Kyushu-Okinawa Region.

Photographs: properties of Unfamiliar Japan