Outline of Kunozan Toshogu
Here I would like to talk a little about Kunozan Toshogu (sometimes spelled Tosho-gu) Shrine, which is perhaps one of the most historically important shrines in Shizuoka Prefecture (which is in central Japan, on the Pacific coast side) in the Chubu Region. It is located at the top of Mt. Kuno. If you were at a loss about where to visit in the middle of the Japanese Archipelago (I mean, between Osaka and Tokyo), this place would be one of my recommendations.
This Shinto shrine was built in 1617, and there are thirteen structures in total in the compound. All of them are the original buildings from the early 17th century and all of them are listed as Important Cultural Properties of the nation. And the main building (sanctuary) was designated as a National Treasure in 2010. This shrine was built to enshrine the soul of Lord Tokugawa Ieyasu and to worship him as a deity.
At the entrance of the shrine precinct stands a big two-storied gate called Romon. It was constructed around 1640 by the third Shogun, Tokugawa Iemitsu, who was the grandson of Ieyasu. There is a large tablet on the gate. The kanji characters on it were autographed by non other than the emperor of Japan at that time.
The characters can be read Tosho Daigongen (東照大権現), which roughly means “Illuminator of the East”, which is the posthumous name of Ieyasu as a deity. Actually, “Toshogu shrine” means “the shrine where Tokugawa Ieyasu is enshrined”. Among many Toshogu shrines in Japan, this one is the first Toshogu and the most important one along with Nikko Toshogu in Tochigi Prefecture.
Lord Tokugawa Ieyasu is one of the most famous historical figures in Japan. He is the first Shogun of the Edo feudal government. Edo is present-day Tokyo, and Shogun was a title given by the emperor of Japan to a feudal lord.
When Ieyasu was born in 1542, Japan was in turmoil. The nation was divided into many small countries and they always fought with each other. And at first Ieyasu was just one of those feudal lords and he fought many battles himself. And finally, he won a final, decisive battle in 1600 (the Battle of Sekigahara), unified Japan and opened a feudal government in Edo. And this Edo government lasted for more than 260 years. It was a peaceful period (roughly speaking). So he united Japan and brought peace to the country. That is why he is still respected by many people.
He spent his last days in Shizuoka, until he passed away in 1616 at the age of 75. And after his passing, his body was immediately carried to Mt. Kuno and buried there according to his will. One year later the shrine was built there by his son, the second shogun of the Edo Shogunate.
In Shinto tradition, it is believed that the soul of the person who contributed greatly to the country turns into kami (a Shinto deity), and becomes an object of worship. And when we visit the shrine and worship the person, we are in return given blessings of magical power by that person.
When you get to the towering Romon Gate, please pay attention to the wooden carvings above before walking through the gate. There are the carvings which depict a lion and peony flowers. The lion is considered to be the king of the animals and peony (tree peony) the king of flowers. Considering Ieyasu’s position, the lion is an appropriate symbol.
But the most interesting carvings are the ones which depict an imaginary animal called baku (pronounced as “bar-koo”). Baku has the nose of an elephant and the belly of a snake. And its main food is all the metals like iron and bronze. And that is why it is considered a symbol of peace. I mean, in the war time, all those metals are usually gathered and turned into the weapons. Then baku can’t live because of the shortage of their food. But looking at the carving there, it seems he is healthy and well-fed, which implies the world is at peace now. The carving of baku is said to represent the most important message from Ieyasu: his wish for peace.
There are two sculptured guardians inside the gate structure. They are protecting the shrine. If you look closely at their faces, you will find the mouth of the left one (the younger one) is wide open, and the mouth of the right one (the elderly one) is tightly closed. It is said that this represents the beginning and the end of all things in this world. At the back of the gate, two sculptured guardian animals are also protecting the shrine.
After you walk through the Romon Gate, you will see a small structure called the Sacred Stable on the left. You can see a wooden carved horse inside. The horse is said to have carved in the early 17th century by a master sculptor named Hidari Jingoro.
It is said that, for a while after Ieyasu’s death, a real horse looking like the carving was living here. It was a Ieyasu’s beloved horse. The story is told that the horse came out of the stable every night to sleep beside its master’s grave (which was in the same compound). And every morning the horse returned to the stable to eat feed. But one morning a priest noticed the horse had not returned yet. So he went to the grave to look for the horse, which was already dead there as if still sleeping. And the master sculptor, listening to the story, carved the horse and dedicated it to Kunozan Toshogu.
There is another side-story about this horse. There was a man who was in charge of looking after the horse. He was a retainer of Ieyasu. Ieyasu died on April 17, 1616, and soon afterwards he committed suicide himself in seppuku style. We call it Junshi: follow one’s master to his grave. This form of suicide was sometimes seen under the feudal system in Japan.
By the way, many structures in the shrine, including the Sacred Stable, are colored vermilion. This vermilion color comes from lacquer painting. Vermilion is said to be auspicious. Lacquer is said to be resistant to heat and moisture, and is anticorrosive and insect proof. However, it is vulnerable to the ultraviolet radiation, and extreme dryness causes cracks on the surface. That is why once in 50 years, the total recoating of lacquer for all the buildings is needed. The last one was done in 2006.
If you stand in front of the main building (sanctuary), which is the most important structure in the shrine designated as a National Treasure, you may think the shape of the building is a little odd. It is a sort of a complex consisting of the three different sections. Haiden, or the worship hall, is the place where people throw a coin and make their wishes. Honden, or the Main Hall, is a place where a spirit of Ieyasu resides as kami. And these two structures are connected by the small section called Ishi-no-ma, or the Stone Hall.
This architectural style is very specific to a Toshogu shrine and it is called Gongen Zukuri structure. The floors of these halls are usually at a different level. The Stone Hall can be considered to be an anteroom to the sanctuary. Every morning a Shinto priest comes to the Stone Hall and makes an offering to kami and prays.
I once asked one of the Shinto priests serving here if some one enters into the main sanctuary area located at the center of the Honden from time to time. He said to me, “people sometimes enter into the periphery of the Honden, but generally no one enters into the centeral area except for the very special occasions. No one dares to because it is where kami reside.”
After Lord Ieyasu died in 1616, his successor, Hidetada the second Shogun, immediately ordered the construction of the shrine, which was supervised by the man called Nakai, the master carpenter at that time. And it took Nakai and other master craftsmen one year and seven months to complete the sanctuary building. Very fast construction for this type of structure.
The highlights of this National Treasure area include extravagant wood carvings, gold leafs and painted decorations, (needless to say the prowess of the construction work). For paintings, five different colors are used. They are natural mineral pigments and black lacquer. They are all high-quality domestic produces.
The subject matters carved or painted here were not chosen randomly but each has its own meanings. It is said the secret messages from Ieyasu are reflected on them. So if you visit the shrine, I hope you will pay attention to these artifacts and try to look for hidden messages from Ieyasu.
Tomb of Lord Ieyasu
If you take the stone steps from the Main Hall for a few minutes, you will reach the tomb of Lord Tokugawa Ieyasu. For a couple of decades after his death, there was a small wooden shrine with a thatched roof standing there instead of the stone. In 1640, by order of the third Shogun, Iemitsu, the giant stones were brought there by ship from Izu Peninsula and processed there.
Several days before his death, realizing that his days were numbered, he uttered his final words: he said that after his death, his body should be buried in Mt. Kuno, looking toward the west, the burial should be completed before the dawn, his funeral should be held in Zojoji Temple in Edo and after a year, a small shrine should be built in Nikko so that people can come to worship him.
So this tomb stands looking toward the west according to his will. The reason why he said “west” is unclear, but people speculates that his birthplace, Okazaki Castle, lay in the west, and also there was a city of Kyoto in the same direction.
Last Days of Ieyasu
Let me say a few things about the death of Lord Tokugawa Ieyasu. On a day in January 1616, three months before his death, he went for hunting with his favorite falcon. Falconry was a popular amusement among feudal lords at that time.
And it was when he ate tempura of a fish called sea bream. Sea bream has been regarded as a king of fish in Japan since long time ago, and has been eaten mainly at festive occasions like wedding ceremonies or New Year’s Day. Ieyasu ate the tempura of this fish and reportedly since then his health had declined.
And three month later on April 17, 1616, he passed away at the age of 75. So the sea bream tempura has long been believed to be the cause of his death. But the recent scientific studies suggest that the cause of his death might have not been the tempura but the stomach cancer. However, the truth is still a mystery.
In the center of the shrine precinct stands a bronze torii gate which was erected in the late Edo Period. It is a third incarnation. The original one was made of wood, the second, of stone. And then, after you walk through it, a short walk takes you to the steep stone steps leading up to the Karamon Gate (Chinese-style Gate), which is the formal entrance to the sanctuary area where the main building is located, being surrounded by a tamagaki fence (玉垣).
In the Edo Period, it seems that ordinary people were not able to proceed beyond this gate. It is said that only the high-ranking samurai were allowed to pass under it to worship at the main building.
Even today, the Karamon Gate is normally closed to us, except for a special occasion like a wedding ceremony or purification ceremony among others. However, fortunately nowadays, we can enter into the sanctuary area through the east entrance, bypassing the Karamon Gate and can appreciate a number of wonderful artifacts inside the fence.
The Karamon Gate structure is a collection of intricate carvings and gorgeous decorations. Although we can observe the front side of the gate only from a distance of several meters, we can see the artifacts on the back side from close up. There are various carvings here, for example, a lion’s head among some peonies, and birds perching in black pines.
A high-level engraving technique called “open work” was used in these carvings. In addition, when the door of the gate is opened, the view from the back of the gate is probably one of the most photogenic of the compound, with the Pacific Ocean seen at a distance over the roof of the Romon Gate.
In China, there is a legend of a carp swimming against a strong current to reach a gate called Ryumon in order to become a dragon. This tale is often mentioned in Japan when people need to overcome various hardships to attain success. So today, we use a term Tou-ryumon (登竜門, literally, climbing up to Ryumon) to represent “the gateway to success.” It is said that the Karamon was designed with this legend in mind, the steep steps representing a strong current.
How to Get There
Kunozan Toshogu Shrine is about 8.5 km (5.3 miles) to the southwest of Shimizu Port and about 13 km (8 miles) to the east of JR Shizuoka Station. Since there is no train stations near the shrine, using a rental car or a taxi might be the best way to get there. The shrine is at the top of Mount Kuno, and there are two ways to reach there: One is to park your car at the foot of the mountain and start climbing on foot (in this case, you need to climb up 1159 stone steps to reach the top); the other is to park your car at the top of the Nihondaira hill, the adjacent mountain, and ride a cable car which takes you to the shrine in five minute.
Probably the most popular spot near Kunozan Toshogu is Miho Pine Grove (or Miho no Matsubara), which has been known for its beautiful scenery with Mt. Fuji and a beach. In 2013, this pine grove was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as one of the “component parts” of Mt. Fuji. And, at the top of the Nihondaira hill stands the Nihondaira Yume Terrace. The view of Mt. Fuji and Shimizu Port seen from its observation deck is superb. If you are interested in trying Japanese traditional dishes like sushi or sashimi, I recommend you to go to the Shimizu Port area because several restaurants will offer you a tasty fish dish there.
If you are thinking about a trip to Japan on a cruise ship and are looking for a local English-speaking tour guide around Shizuoka and Shimizu area, please send an e-mail through the Rates/Contact page of this site.
Photographs: taken at Kunozan Toshogu Shrine,
by Koji Ikuma, with Fujifilm X-T1
equipped with a Summar 5cm f2 lens.